ⓘ Perintang antibiotik adalah sejenis sub-populasi mikroorganisma perintang dadah, biasanya dari spesies bakteria, biasanya ia mampu hidup selepas terdedah dengan ..

                                     

ⓘ Perintang antibiotik

Perintang antibiotik adalah sejenis sub-populasi mikroorganisma perintang dadah, biasanya dari spesies bakteria, biasanya ia mampu hidup selepas terdedah dengan satu ataupun banyak jenis antibiotik; perintang patogen hingga ke antibiotik berganda yang dikenali sebagai perintang pelbagai dadah atau superbugs. Berbanding manusia, mikrob lebih cenderung membangunkan perintang kepada kesan antibiotik.

Perintang antibiotik dianggap sebagai suatu bentuk fenomena serius dan kian menunjukkan peningkatan dalam bidang perubatan kontemporari. Ia muncul sebagai masalah kesihatan umum yang paling terkenal pada abad ke-21 khususnya berkaitan organisma patogen dari sudut organisma yang boleh mendatangkan kemudharatan kepada kesihatan manusia sejagat amnya.

                                     

1. Kes di Malaysia

Bermula awal tahun 2013 sehingga pertengahan bulan Ogos 2013, Sarawak, Malaysia telah mencatat sebanyak 38 kes berkaitan bakteria perintang antibiotik atau superbug jenis Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae CRE. Menurut Pengarah Kesihatan negeri Sarawak, Datuk Dr. Zulkifli Jantan, daripada jumlah itu sebanyak 31 kes disahkan positif CRE iaitu sama ada dijangkiti secara langsung atau menjadi perumah kepada bakteria tersebut.

Kesemua kes tersebut dilaporkan di Hospital Sibu dan setakat pertengahan Ogos sebanyak 10 kematian telah direkodkan, namun hanya dua daripadanya disahkan berpunca daripada jangkitan terus CRE.

                                     

2. Rujukan

Buku
  • Nelson, Richard William 2009. Darwin, Then and Now: The Most Amazing Story in the History of Science Self Published. iUniverse. m/s. 294.
  • Caldwell, Roy; Lindberg, David, para penyunting 2011. "Understanding Evolution". University of California Museum of Paleontology. Dicapai pada Aug 14, 2011.
Jurnal
  • Hawkey, PM; Jones, AM 2009. "The changing epidemiology of resistance". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 64 Suppl 1: i3–10. doi:10.1093/jac/dkp256. PMID 19675017.
  • Arias, Cesar A.; Murray, BE 2009. "Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs in the 21st Century - A Clinical Super-Challenge". New England Journal of Medicine. 360 5: 439–443. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0804651. PMID 19179312.
  • Goossens, H; Ferech, M; Vander Stichele, R; Elseviers, M; Esac Project, Group 2005. "Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study". Lancet. Group Esac Project. 365 9459: 579–87. doi:10.1016/S0140-67360517907-0. PMID 15708101.
  • "Alternatives to Antibiotics Reduce Animal Disease". Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. 2006.
  • Soulsby, EJ 2005. "Resistance to antimicrobials in humans and animals: Overusing antibiotics is not the only cause and reducing use is not the only solution". BMJ. 331 7527: 1219–20. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7527.1219. PMC 1289307. PMID 16308360.
  • DCosta, Vanessa; King, Christine; Kalan, Lindsay; Morar, Mariya; Sung, Wilson; Schwartz, Carsten; Froese, Duane; Zazula, Grant; Calmels, Fabrice 2011. "Antibiotic resistance is ancient". Nature. 477 7365: 457–461. Bibcode:2011Natur.477.457D. doi:10.1038/nature10388. PMID 21881561.
  • Donadio, Stefano; Maffioli, Sonia; Monciardini, Paolo; Sosio, Margherita; Jabes, Daniela 2010. "Antibiotic discovery in the twenty-first century: Current trends and future perspectives". The Journal of Antibiotics. 63 8: 423–430. doi:10.1038/ja.2010.62. PMID 20551985.

Akhbar;

                                     

3. Pautan luar

  • Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics
  • CDC Guideline "Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Healthcare Settings, 2006"
  • SciDev.net Antibiotic Resistance spotlight The Science and Development Network is an online science and development network focused on news and information important to the developing world
  • Do Bugs Need Drugs?
  • Combating Drug Resistance - Tackling drug resistance in bacteria and other pathogens.
  • Extending the Cure: Policy Research to Extend Antibiotic Effectiveness
  • Information about phage therapy – a possible alternative to antibiotics in case of resistant infections
  • BURDEN of Resistance and Disease in European Nations - An EU-Project to estimate the financial burden of antibiotic resistance in European Hospitals
  • 2003 New Guidance for Industry on Antimicrobial Drugs for Food Animals Questions and Answers, U.S. FDA
  • CDC Article on Hospital Acquired MRSA
  • Nanoparticles could treat antibiotic resistant infections.
  • doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00723.x Petikan ini akan disiapkan secara automatik dalam beberapa minit. Anda boleh memotong barisan atau mengembangkannya sendiri
  • ReAct Action on Antibiotic Resistance
  • CBS Article on Phage Therapy and Antibiotic Resistance
  • Antibiotic-resistance genes as markers Once necessary, now undesirable
  • CDC Article on Community Acquired MRSA
  • Animation of Antibiotic Resistance
  • Hospitals: Breeding the Superbug Article on MRSA infections in hospitals, Allianz Knowledge, by Valdis Wish, May 2008.